UGWU CHIOMA SCHOLASTICA1 &EKEKWE EME NWACHUKWU2
1Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author’s Email: email@example.com
2Department of Political Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Globally, women are faced with challenges that undermine their active participation and representation in governance. This is in spite of numerous international and national laws that protect women’s rights especially in politics. The poor representation of women in governance has negative implications on policy legislation and national development. In view of these challenges, it becomes necessary to investigate citizens’ perception on the crux of poor women’s representation in Enugu State, Nigeria. The Marxist Feminist theory formed the foundation of this study. Both quantitative and qualitative instruments were utilized in the study. The study covered 17 local governments in the State from which was drawn a sample size of 600. An appropriate questionnaire constituted the quantitative instrument while interview served as the qualitative instrument. Tables and simple percentages were used in the presentation of the quantitative data while descriptive analysis served as the method of analysis. Major findings from the study showed the reinforcing negative impact of patriarchal ideology, poor political party support, low economic status of women, electoral violence, and electoral fraud. To address these challenges, citizens’ value-reorientation through political education, the application of electoral quota system; strengthening of political institutions such as the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) among others were recommended to enhance women’s political status necessary for better policy legislation, and national development
Abama, E. &Kwaja, C. (2009). Violence against women in Nigeria: How the millennium development goals address the challenge. Journal of Pan African Studies, 3(3), 23-34.
Agbalajobi, D. T. (2010). Women’s participation and political process in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4(2): 75- 82.
Barrett, M. (1980).Women’s oppression today: Problems in Marxist feminist analysis. London: Verso.
Common Wealth . (2017). Women’s political participation in the commonwealth. January 16, 2017 from http://thecommonwealth.org/media/news/women%E2%80%99s-political- participation- commonwealth
CRS Report (2019). Women in national governments around the globe: Fact Sheet. Accessed June 30, 2022 from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45483.pdf.
Dahlerup, D. &Freidenvall, L. (2003).Quotas as a “fast track” to equal political representation for women. Paper presented at the IPSA World Congress, Durban, South Africa, June 29 to July 4, 2003 and in the present updated version at the APSA Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, 2-23. Accessed January 16, 2017, from https://equalvoice.ca/pdf/APSA5.pdf
Ebirim, S.I (2014). The effects of electoral malpractices on Nigeria democratic consolidation (1999-2003).Public Policy and Administration Research, 4 (2), 49-54.
Engles, F. (1972). The origin of the family, private property and the state. New York: International publishers.
EU (2019). EU election observation mission Nigeria 2019 final report general elections. Accessed June 30, 2020 from https://www.google.com/search?client=firefoxb- d&q=European+Union+%282019%29.+EU+Election+Observation+Mission+Nigeria+20 19+Final+Report+General+%09Elections
FGN. (2013). National policy on education. Accessed March 18, 2021 from
Hartmann, H. (1981). The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: Towards a more progressive union. Feminist theory reader ed. by C. Mccann& S. Kim.Routledge, 187- 199.
IDEA, IPU & Stockholm University (2013). Atlas of electoral gender quotas. Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
IRI & NDI (2019). Nigeria international election observation mission final report. Washington DC: Author.
Isma’ila, Y. & Othman, Z. (2015). Challenges of electoral processes in Nigeria’s quest for democratic governance in the Fourth Republic,Research on Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (22), 1-10.
Jaggar, A. M. (1983). Feminist politics and human nature. United States of America: Rowman &Allanheld Publishers.
Jega, A. M. (2012). The electoral process and security sector synergy, a paper delivered at Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Abuja: Nigeria on August 21.
Kean, J. (2004). Violence and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kayuni, H. M., &Chikadza, F. K.(2016). The gatekeepers: Political participation of women in Malawi. Accessed October 10, 2020 from https://www.cmi.no/publications/5929- gatekeepers-political-participation-women-malawi
Kollontai, A. (1977). Communism and the family. In A. Holt, Selected writings of Alexandra Kollontai (translated and commentaries), London: Alison and Busby.
Marshall, T. C. (1996). Marxist feminism in Brazil. Romance Notes, 36, 3, 283-292.
McBain, W. (March, 2015). Nigeria election: The country’s first-ever female presidential candidate hoping to inspire other women to become politically active. The Independent. Accessed May 24, 2020 from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/nigeria- election-the-countrys-first- ever-female-presidential-candidate-hoping-to-inspire-other- women-10137107.html
McDaniel, A. (2014). Women’s rising share of tertiary enrollment: A cross-national analysis. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education, 1(2). Accessed February 10, 2021 fromhttp://preserve.lehigh.edu/fire/vol1/iss2/1
Musa, Z. (April, 2019). African women in politics: Miles to go before parity is achieved Africa Renewal. Accessed February 28, 2021 from https://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/april-2019-july-2019/african-women- politics-miles-go-parity-achieved
Ngara, C. O., &Ayabam, A.T. (2013). Women in politics and decision- making in Nigeria: Challenges and prospects. European Jonrnal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(8), 47- 58.
NPC (2006). National results by state and sex. Accessed October 10, 2020 from https://web.archive.org/web/20110519235026/http://www.population.gov.ng/files/ion afinal.pdf
Oakley, A. (1974). The sociology of housework. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Odalonu, B. H.(2019).The nexus of gender and political participation: An appraisal of factors militating against women in politics in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria, International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) III(IX), 539-548.
Onwumah, A., George, T.,Olonade, O. &Adetunde, C. (2019). Factors militating against gender mainstreaming in Nigeria, Gender &Behaviour, 17 (4), 14035- 14048.
Onyeji, E. (October, 2019). 2019 elections worst for Nigerian women in nearly two decades, analyses show. Accessed May 15, 2020 from
Tong, R. (2009).Feminist thought: A more comprehensive introduction (3rded.). USA: Westview press.
Ugwu, C. S. &Ekekwe, E. N. (2018). Women’s political representation and the implications on democratic governance of Enugu State, 2011-2015. Hezekiah University Journal of Contemporary Research, 7(2), 221-227.
Ugwu, C. S. (2018a). Challenges of political representation of women in Nsukka local government area of Enugu State. Journal of Public Administration and Governance Research [JPAGR] 1(1), 100-110.
Ugwu, C. S. (2018b). Political culture and women’s political participation in Enugu State, Nigeria, 1999-2015. A Ph.D thesis, Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt.
Ugwuegede, P. N. (2014). Challenges to women active participation in politics in Nigeria, Sociology and Anthropology 2(7): 284-290.
UNDP LEAP (2017). Women’s quota parliamentary elections 2017. Lebanon: UNDP LEAP.
United Nations (2014). Women’s rights are human rights. New York, Geneva: Author.
UN Women (2021).Facts and figures: Women’s leadership and political participation, Accessed February 5, 2021 from https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/leadership-and- political-participation/facts-and-figures
Varrella. S. (2020). Gross enrollment rate in private and public elementary school in Nigeria as of 2018, by zone and gender. Accessed 23/02/2021 from
Yahaya U, & Umar, K. (2018). Factors militating against women’s political participation in Nupe communities of Central Nigeria, World Journal of Innovative Research (WJIR) 5(6):61-67.
For complete paper